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Early Vocal Music Map

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  • Research and text by Chris Whent at HOASM (Here on a Sunday Morning - WBAI 99.5 FM New York)
  • Composer Bibliography - links to Wikipedia and HOASM
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IV. The High Renaissance (16th Century)

IVa. The Netherlanders from Josquin des Prés.

Ockeghem was revered not only as composer but also as a teacher. Among his many students may well have been the incomparable Josquin des Prez , the most esteemed composer of his age. The historian Cosimo Bartoli in 1567 compared Josquin's stature as a musician to Michelangelo's as an artist. As late as 1711 Andrea Adami cited Josquin as the father of contrapuntal music, an unusual tribute for an era when musicians of even the immediately preceding generation were quickly forgotten. It was Josquin who more than any other composer set forth the principles of systematic imitation which were to form the stylistic basis of polyphonic music for the rest of the century. His exquisitely shaped lines, beguiling textures, and carefully ordered harmonies produced a music of surpassing breadth and formal logic, music so carefully articulated that it is surprisingly easy to follow even at its most complex.



If Josquin towered above his contemporaries, this does not devalue their work. For he was surrounded by a host of lesser luminaries, substantial composers in their own right. Among the most prominent names were Alexander Agricola , Jacob Obrecht , Loyset Compère , Heinrich Isaac , Jean Mouton , Antoine Brumel , and Pierre de la Rue . Even now, however, their works are so seldom performed and recorded that it is difficult to formulate more than a vague impression of their musical personalities. But it is clear enough that they were far more than carbon copies of Josquin. Consider Obrecht, la Rue, and Isaac. Obrecht's music lacks the textural variety, rhythmic animation, and emotional impact of Josquin, or for that matter the brooding whimsy of Ockeghem's, but it does possess a forthright vigor, a warmth, and quirky spontaneity that are immediately likable. La Rue, on the other hand, writes in a richly textured style full of contrapuntal artifice and sombre dignity. Heinrich Isaac was perhaps the greatest of Josquin's contemporaries, even more versatile and cosmopolitan than Josquin himself, a master of sonorous possibility and emotional penetration.



One of the great accomplishments of the composers of the High Renaissance, as Josquin's era has become known, was the development of systematic principles of imitation. Each phrase of text would be given its own "point of imitation," repeated in turn by every voice part before moving on to the next phrase in a continuously overlapping series. As time went on, the Franco-Flemish composers grew freer and freer in their imitative procedures, so that the imitative phrases were shorter and less recognizably drawn from a model, and the various entrances were less clearly defined. Moreover, the standard number of parts was expanded from four to five or six. The result was a denser, more seamless textural fabric.The major exponents of these techniques were Nicolas Gombert , Jacob Clemens non Papa , and Adrian Willaert . We list Willaert last, for though he was bom before Gombert and Clemens he outlived them both, and was by a considerable margin the most progressive of the three. During his service as chapelmaster at St. Mark's cathedral in Venice (1527-62) Willaert moved toward a new, "Venetian" style characterized by natural declamation, sensitive though restrained expression of the text, chordally oriented counterpoint, and antiphonal writing for two choirs. In so doing he established the basis for the subsequent achievements of Andrea Gabrieli and Giovanni Gabrieli and for entrance into a new world, that of the Baroque. He is considered more fully as part of Period IVn: The Venetian Style .

Articles

Composers bibliography and music

Name and link to Whents Bibliography Years Country # of PDF/Midi Discography MP3
Alexander Agricola c.1446 - 1506 Flanders/France cpdl=2 Discography .
Philippe Basiron (?=Philippon) fl. c.1500 Flanders/France . . .
Josquin Baston fl. 1542 - 1553 Flanders/France . . .
Noel Bauldewijn c.1480 - 1529/30 Flanders/France . . .
Antoine Brumel c.1460 - after 1520 Flanders/France cpdl=13 Discography .
Cornelius Canis [de Hondt, d'Hondt] c.1510/20 - 1561 Flanders/France cpdl=1 . MP3
Antonius de Civitate ? - after 1523 Italy . . .
Jacobus Clemens (non Papa) c.1510 - 1555/6 Flanders/France cpdl=46 Discography MP3
Adrianus Petit Coclico 1499/1500 - 1562 Flanders/France . . .
Loyset Compère c.1450 - 1518 Flanders/France cpdl=8 Discography MP3
Jean Cornuel (Verjust) ? - 1499 Flanders/France . . .
Nikolaes Craen fl. 1504 Flanders/France . Discography MP3
Thomas Crecquillon c.1500 - 1557 Flanders/France cpdl=2 Discography .
Ghiselin Danckerts [Dankers] 1505/15 - after 1565 Flanders/France . . .
Petit-jean Delattre ? - 1569 Flanders/France . . .
Josquin Des Prez ?c1440 - 1521 Flanders/France cpdl=89 Discography MP3
Antonius Divitis c.1475 - after 1526 Flanders/France . Discography .
Noel Faignient c1540 - 1598 Flanders/France . . .
Antoine de Févin c1473 - 1511/12 Flanders/France cpdl=1 . .
Antoine Francisque c.1570 - 1605 Flanders/France . . .
Gallus (Jean Le Cocq) fl. 1514 - 1543 Flanders/France . . .
Ihan (Jehan) Gero fl. 1541 - 1556 Flanders/France . . .
Jean Ghiselin c. 1455 - c. 1511 Flanders/France . Discography .
Nicolas Gombert c. 1500 - after 1556 Flanders/France cpdl=7 . MP3
Anton Gosswin ? - 1502/3 Flanders/France . . .
Hayne van Ghizeghem c. 1445 - before 1495 Flanders/France . . .
Jean [Johannes] Guyot [Castileti, Châtelet] 1512 - 1588 Flanders/France . . .
Georges de la Hèle ? - after 1525 Flanders/France . . .
Lupus [Wulfaert] Hellinck c. 1496/1501 - 1541 Flanders/France . . .
Balduin Hoyoul c. 1547/49 - 1594 Flanders/France cpdl=2 . .
Heinrich [Henricus] Isaac [Ysaac, Isaak], [Arrigo il Tedesco] c. 1445 - 1517 Flanders/France cpdl=25 Discography MP3
Jacotin (real name Jacob Godebrye) ? - 1529 Flanders/France cpdl=1 . .
Jean [Johannes] Japart fl. 1500 Flanders/France . Discography .
Jacobus de Kerle 1531/32 - 1591 Flanders/France cpdl=7 . .
Jean L'Héritier c. 1480 - after 1541 Flanders/France cpdl=1 . .
Antoine de Longaval [Jean à la Venture] ? - after 1523 Flanders/France . . .
Johannes Lupi (Leleu) c. 1506 - 1539 Flanders/France . . .
Mattheus Le Maistre c. 1505 - 1577 Flanders/France . . .
Carl [Charles] Luyt[h]on c. 1556 - 1620 Flanders . . .
Pieter [Petrus] Maessens [Maessins Massenus Moderatus] c. 1505 - 1563 Flanders/France . . .
Rogier Michael c. 1554 - 1619 Flanders/France . . .
Jean Molinet c. 1435 - 1507 Flanders/France . . .
Philippe de Monte 1521 - 1603 Flanders/France cpdl=3 Discography MP3
Pierre Moulu c.1480/90 - c. 1550 France . . .
Jean [Jehan] Mouton c. 1459 - 1522 Flanders/France cpdl=14 . MP3
Hubert Naich 16:th century Flanders/France . . .
Jacob Obrecht 1450/1 - 1505 Flanders/France cpdl=1 Discography MP3
Mabriano de Orto ? - 1529 Flanders/France . . .
André (Andries) Pevemage 1543 - 1591 Flanders/France cpdl=4 . .
Matthaeus Pipelare fl. c1500 Flanders/France cpdl=1 . .
Johannes Prioris fl. 1490 - 1512 Flanders/France . . .
Jakob Regnart c. 1540 - 1599 Flanders/France cpdl=2 . .
Adam Rener (Reiner) ? - c. 1520 Flanders/France . . .
Pierre de la Rue c. 1460 - 1518 Flanders/France . Discography MP3
Johannes de Sarto 15th century Flanders/France . . .
Lambert de Sayve 1549 - 1614 Flanders/France . . .
Ludwig Senfl c. 1486 - 1542/3 Switzerland/Germany .cpdl=15 Discography MP3
Johannes Stockem c. 1440 - 1500 Flanders/France . . .
Johannes Tinctoris c. 1436 - before 1511 Flanders/France . . .
Gérard de Turnhout c. 1520 - 1580 Flanders/France . . .
Johannes Urreda (Wreede, Vrede fl. 1476 - 1481 Spain . . .
Alexander Utendal c. 1530 - 1581 Flanders/France . . .
Cornelius Verdonck c.1563 - 1625 Flanders/France cpdl=3 . .
Caspar Vincentius 1580? - before 1624 Flanders/France . . .
Hubert Waelrant c. 1517 - 1595 Flanders/France cpdl=1 . .
Gaspar van Weerbeke c. 1440 - after 1518 Flanders/France . . .
Giaches de Wert 1525 - 1596 Flanders/France cpdl=12 Discography MP3
Adrian Willaert 1490 - 1562 Flanders/France cpdl=22 Discography MP3

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