XI. The German Preclassics (1700-1760)
German music, influenced by Neapolitan tunefulness and French elegance, began to develop "popular" aspects. The solo aria was simplified into the simple religious song, dance song and pastoral song. at the smae time the acme of aristocratic music-making, in both opera and chamber music, was attained at the courts, such as Dresden, and in particular at Potsdam, where the music loving King Frederick the Great (d. 1786) played the flute and wrote conceros and sonatas for the instrument. Outstanding composers and virtuosos such as Johann Joachim Quantz (d. 1773) played in the Royal Orchestra, which was direcetd by the operatic composer Karl Heinrich Graun (d. 1759). But by far the most versatile and prolific composer of the period was george Philipp Telemann (d. 1767), whose centre of activity in the City of Hamburg epitomizes bourgeois music-making of the royal courts.